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Difference Between XHTML and HTML4

HTML is the Hyper Text Markup Language which is rendered by any web browser you use to visit any website or web application. Whatever programming language, whatever platform a website or web application uses, it drills down to HTML only for your browser. So HTML is the building block of the World Wide Web which has not seen much significant improvement during last 2 decades except the Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language - the XHTML.

Here are the very basic differences between HTML and XHTML -

1) All documents must be well formed and properly nested

<p>The food is <em>delicious</em></p> - Correct.
<p>The food is <em>delicious</p></em> - Wrong.

2) Elements and Attributes must be in lowercase


<li> will be used instead of <LI> and the two are much different - Correct.

3) XHTML Documents and every content section must have one container

<html>
<head></head>
<body></body>
</html>

<p>The food is delicious</p> <p>I am hungry</p> - Correct.
<p>The food is delicious</p> I am hungry - Wrong.

4) Attribute values must be quoted

<td rowspan="3"> - Correct
<td rowspan=3> - Wrong

5) Empty Elements must either have an end tag or the start tag must end with />

<hr></hr> or <br /> <hr /> - Correct
<br> <hr> - Wrong.

Though at the end of the day we have a new player in the game which is being called as HTML5 - a wonder in HTML technology, the movement World Wide Web should have seen much ago.

Atari 800 Laptop


Master video game modder Ben HEck is back at it again, and this time, he's built a custom Atari 800 Laptop. It features a 15-inch display, Atari XEGS motherboard, and a flush-mount cartridge slot. Video after the break

PS3 Slim Laptop Pictures


First unveiled a couple days ago, Ben Heck's PS3 Slim Laptop  build process has now been documented in pictures. Official specifications include a built-in power supply w/cord compartment and stereo speakers. Plus, he's released a brand new video showing his custom creation in-action. Continue reading to watch.

PS3 Slim Laptop 2 Unveiled


File this under: game console-inspired laptops. Yes, Ben Heck  has finally unveiled his latest creation, the PS3 Slim 2 Laptop. This updated model features a stunning 17-inch HD (720p) widescreen display, integrated stereo speakers / headphone jack, power cord compartment, and "stylish pin striping to make games run at blast processing." Video after the break

Custom SNES Portable with Laser-Cut Case


Brian Henderson  of the Ben Heck forums -- an incredible video game modder who's completed many portable systems in the past -- has unveiled the SNESp (#5). Everything was made from scratch, and to top thing off, laser-cutting company Pololu helped finish off the stunning case. That's not all, Brian says that he's taken all the "learned from making this portable and already designed the next revision." Video after the break.

Custom Transforming Laptop is Perfect for Coach Section Flying


Video game modder extraordinaire Ben Heck has been very busy lately, but still managed to squeeze in a new project or two. His latest is a custom transforming laptop that's perfect for the cramped coach section seats on airplanes. Continue reading for a video demonstration. Click here for more pictures.

NEW! HP TouchSmart 310 20-inch 1080p All-in-one Multi-Touch PC w/ Free 640GB Hard Drive upgrade


Description & Instructions
HP Home - NEW Newest 20-inch HP TouchSmart 310 All-in-one PC with multi-touch starting at $779.99 -$100 off - $25 stackable coupon = $654.99 with FREE shipping, FREE upgrade to 3GB RAM, FREE upgrade to 640GB Hard drive and 50% off HP All-in-One printer - only $39.99 with your PC purchase.

Updated TouchSmart 310z features 1080p multi-touch screen, piano-black finish with chrome accents, 6-in-1 card reader, built-in adjustable tilt webcam & mic, swivel base, wireless keyboard & mouse, removable feet for wall mounting, Windows 7, optional TV tuner and more.

Review time! HP Pavilion dm4t Laptop


You know that time it is? That’s right, it’s review time, and we’ve put one of HP’s latest machines, the dm4t laptop, to the test. Follow the link for the full video review, but I can say it here, the powerful memory and graphics options, coupled with a stylish design and 64-bit OS make this one sexy beast of a machine. Yeah, the starting price of $749.99 is a bit steep, but there’s a lot of power in this machine. Not bad!

Asus Eee PC 1005HA Seashell


One of the leading global leader of mobile innovation, Asus launches a new model Asus Eee PC 1005HA Seashell. This eye-catching new model is the first Eee PC to offer over 10 hours of battery life for all day computing. This amazing model is inspired by the elegant design and graceful curves of seashell.  It weighs 2.8lbs with its dimensions measuring 10.2" x 6.9" x 1.4". Asus Eee PC 1005HA Seashell comes with 10.1 inch LCD having 1024x600 pixel resolutions along with LED backlight.

The prime features of Asus Eee PC 1005HA Seashell include Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 2.1+EDR for rapid data transfers, 1.3 megapixel webcam for video conferencing, 160GB hard-drive for mass storage and two ports of USB 2.0. This powerful laptop also comes with built-in Digital Array Mic.

The Asus Eee PC 1005HA Seashell has an excellent sound quality with SRS surround Sound Speakers which provides the users with real life effects. Asus Eee PC 1005HA Seashell is the first to provide new Eee Docking software which offers easy access to various utilities, software and digital content.

Asus Eee PC 1005HA Seashell has swift keyboard with full-size shift keys that makes it comfortable for typing. The keyboard comes along with extra wide palm rests and seam-less touch pad that supports multi-touch gestures.Asus Eee PC 1005HA Seashell is an attractive laptop and portable to carry due to its sleek design.

Read more: http://tech-wonders.blogspot.com/2009/06/asus-eee-pc-1005ha-seashell.html#ixzz1506xuz5G
Under Creative Commons License: Attribution

ASUS U33JC-A1 Bamboo Laptop – Innovative Blend of Technology and User-Interactivity


ASUS have recently launched a new innovative laptop in their popular Bamboo series, ASUS U33JC-A1 Bamboo. This amazing fully fledged laptop comes with attractive and durable design & flexible functions to provide users with an interactive computing environment.
ASUS U33JC-A1 Bamboo Laptop
The ASUS U33JC-A1 Bamboo serves a perfect requirement for the users who are looking for Intel Core i3 processor, eye-catchy design, Nvidia graphics and imposing battery life. It’s a laptop that comes with a innovative blend of technology and user-interactivity. The laptop is loaded with the following key specifications and prime features:

    * 13.3-inch 720p display with LED backlighting and resolution 1366 x 768 pixels
    * Genuine Windows 7 Home Premium 64-bit and Intel Core i3 370M with processing speed of 2.40 GHz
    * Nvidia GeForce 310M graphics card with dedicated memory of 1GB DDR3 (optimus switchable graphics between power saving integrated graphics & high performance discrete graphics) for running high end graphic applications
    * 4GB DDR3 RAM 1066MHz for boosting applications processing speed
    * 500 GB Hard Disk with speed of 5400 rpm
    * WLAN of type 802.11b/g/n and Bluetooth connectivity
    * Frontal camera for easy digital video conferencing

Asus G60J Laptop - An ideal icon for gamers


With the boosting latest technology and stylish new design, the Asus G60J  is going to be a definite addiction in the market. This amazing laptop is an ideal icon for gamers with its ultra gaming features and Intel core i7 processor. @ First published here on my "Wonderful Tech. Stuff" blog @

The Asus G60J comes with a G60J's Core i7-820QM which is a quad-core chip that provides turbo boost technology that monitors the loading of processor, consumption of power and helps to maintain a steady temperature.

The Asus G60J is loaded with key features and technical specifications like

    * Intel core i7 820QM processor with clock speed of 1.73 GHz

    * 4096 MB of RAM of type DDR3 (expandable upto 8GB) for high speed application processing

    * Intel PM45 chipset with data bus speed of 1066 MHz

    * 1000 GB of SATA Hard Disk for storing huge volumes of data

    * Built in Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and Ethernet for easy wireless networking solutions

    * NVIDIA GeForce GTX 260M Graphic Processor for running high graphic applications and 3D games which require a high graphic support

    * 16 inches LCD display screen with LED backlight display with a high resolution of 1366 x 768 pixels

    * Built-in Microphones and Camera for easy audio video conferencing

    * Windows 7 Ultimate 64 bit Operating system for providing users with smoother, secure and flexible computing environment

VAIO CS Colored Laptop Computers


A few weeks ago we had the pleasure to attend  SonyĆ¢€™s live webcast from  IFA 2008  and see the latest companyĆ¢€™s products prepared for the release in Europe. Included in the presentation, Sony showed us also some  environmentally friendly products powering from solar energy. At the beginning of September we were happy to see the new VAIO CS colored laptop computers  with a stylish design and a vivid look, created for fashionable people who need mobile entertainment capabilities in addition to processing power.

Among the latest VAIO CS models you have the chance to get the new CS11 laptop providing touch-sensitive Audio/Video controls with visual and tactile feeling, available in superb colors covering the system from the casing to the palm rest.

GE Shows Off New Digital Camera


By Shane McGlaun

When I hear the name GE, digital cameras are not what spring to mind. I think of light bulbs really. Still GE has a full line of digital cameras and other stuff that doesn’t have to do with lighting our homes.

The company announced its latest digital camera recently called the E1250TW. The cam sports a 12.2-megapixel resolution and a 28mm wide angle lens with 5x optical zoom. The most interesting feature of the camera is that the 3-inch LCD is touch sensitive.

Other features include auto scene detection HDTV out, face detection, blink detection, smile detection, an auto adjust LCD, and red-eye removal. A special mode allows users to shoot panoramic images as well. The camera is available now on HSN and on Amazon.com.

The latest Samsung’s PL10 digital camera can play MP3s


The Samsung PL10 is a latest 9 mega pixel multimedia digital camera. The Samsung PL10 (also known as the Samsung Samsung CL5) features a 2.7 inch LCD screen as well as PMP (Personal Multimedia Player) with integrated MP3 player. New is noticeable facial appearance of the PL10 including facade acknowledgment, Perfect portrayal System, Smart Auto and Frame guide? The Samsung PL10 in the UK the Samsung PL10 strength of character is available from April 2009 in silvery, royal black, imaginative red, candy pink and purple designed for £179.

Olympus Stylus Tough-8000/Tough-6000 Digital Cameras


When Olympus decided to call their new digital cameras the Tough series, they really weren’t kidding.

Olympus Stylus Tough 8000 Digital Camera

In terms of specifications, the Tough-8000 comes with 12 megapixels of resolution whereas the Tough-6000 has 10 megapixels.

Where the fun starts is with the other things Olympus claims these latest digital cameras can do. For instance, the Tough-8000 can be dropped from 6.6 feet in height, can go down to a depth of 33 feet as well as withstand pressures of up to 220 lbs and it will “laugh at freezing temperatures.”

The Tough-6000 isn’t quite so tough, but still impressive in that it can be dropped from 5 feet and can go to depths of 10 feet.

iPhone 4 in India & Pakistan | Apple unveils iPhone 4 | Latest iPhone Technology


Apple unveils iPhone 4 in the following month 2010. iPhone 4 is a latest technology gadget. The latest technology of video calling is provided in the iPhone 4. video recording. iPhone 4 has a longer battery timing and a very high resolution 3.5 inch touch screen. iPhone 4 is going to sale on 24th June in the following year. iPhone 4 has 5 mega pixel digital camera.

LG KC910 Renoir mobile phone review.


LG has official announced LG KC910 Renoir, LG present LG KC910 Renoir is the latest and best of the camera phone type. LG KC910 Renoir comes with latest and best technology about connectivity such as HSDPA 7.2 Mbps, Wi-Fi connection support and GPS receiver with A-GPS support with serious image and video quality. LG KC910 Renoir comes with 8 megapixel autofocus camera and Xenon flash, include feature of digital image stabilizer, face tracking and blink detection, LG KC910 Renoir support geo-tagging and touchscreen focus or change to manual focus if you want. LG KC910 Renoir comes with XviD and DivX video playback and high-resolution video recording.

Samsung touch screen mobile phone Star S5230 & Preston S5600


The mobile company Samsung has come with the latest technology cell phone called the


Star S5230 & the Preston S5600 with the very excellent features. This cell phone has very different or we can say amazing quality of the latest mobile phone. This cell phones are available in very amazing designs & with the amazing great colours and which are also available in sli


m designs & great colours it looks stylish & fantastic.


This newly latest technology amazing mobile phone which can easily put in your pockets. This has the great features together with the music recognition, this also support the HSDPA


3.5 G very high speed networks, 3.2 mega pixel camera with the videos recording capabilities, musics recognitions and this also supports the Bluetooth it has the features lock & FM radio.


This Samsung Preston S5600 & Star S5230 is available in 3 inch touch screen. It has t


he great features like the contacts, calendar, calculator and the messaging with the best quality. You can enjoy with the latest track any time when you feel boar with the help of the B


luetooth and this also has the FM radio at anytime and can enjoy the songs at any where. You can easily catch up the favorite pictures of favorite place with the 3.5 mega pixel camera. This is one of the best offers of the Samsung and is coolest collections of the latest mobile phones.

Latest Mobile Technology


As you see that the technology keeps developing overtime, especially related to mobile phone. They keep adding new features to their mobile phone to make it as sophisticated as it can be and to make it become the most complete mobile phone  that can do anything besides making and receiving calls or messages. Here are the latest technology of mobile phone that you might want to know.


The first one is Bluetooth 3.0. If all this time, all you know is only Bluetooth, well here comes the latest version of Bluetooth called Blutooth 3.0. What are the strength? It has faster speeds which can transfer files at 480 mb per second.  Another mobile technology is mobile users interfaces since mobile computing is very important for consumer these days. The next mobile technology is location awareness which is powered by GPS. It allows the users to know the exact location of their contacts. On the other hands, your contacts can now your exact location as well. Another one is near field communication (NFC). It is a technology that provides the consumers to use their phone to make payments.


Those are the latest mobile technologies these days, as mobile consumer you can choose the one that meets your needs.

Fujitsu’s F705i Becomes World’s Slimmest Waterproof 3G Mobile phone


Fujitsu’s F705i is just 13.7 mm thick with waterproof body for the careless mobile  freaks out there, here is a phone that you wished you can use while swimming..hey! but warranty voids if you go deeper than 1m and more than 30 minutes. The phone is the slimmest waterproof mobile phone which also comes with 3G.


It weighs only 111g with dimensions of 106 x 49 x 13.7mm. As for battery life, it allows 170 minutes of talk time and 100 minutes of videophone. The Mobile is also features Super Clear Voice and Super Clear Mike that would automatically adjust the volume of calls depending on noise level surrounding the phone user, comes with a 1.3Mpix camera and Quick Zoom too. If you are interested in how the phone will look then see the pic above .

Top 3G Mobile Phones in India


Compare theses Top 3G Mobile Phones in India. If you are in India and going to purchase a best 3G mobile then take a look in below given best top 3G mobile phones.


3G Mobiles are the third generation mobile telephony. This is a latest technology used to increase the speed of data transmission over the internet thus it is World-wide. Now here you can see some of the Top Most Best 3G-Mobiles in India.

Blackberry Mobile Phones fully equipped with latest business softwares


It’s only natural that parents worry and want to know where their kids are at all times when they’re out and about.


These days technology has made it a lot easier than it was a few years back as today most kids have a mobile phone and can call or text their parents to let them know their whereabouts.


However, what if your child gets so absorbed in what they’re doing they forget to let you know, or don’t want to call you, or aren’t telling you exactly where they are?


Now there’s a brand new app called ‘Whereoscope’ that’s dedicated to letting you know where your kids are and will alert you when your child is at school, or at their friend’s house, or anywhere else for that matter.


Well to be more precise it isn’t exactly a brand new app, it’s really an upgraded version of ChildPulse, but that app only allowed a couple of locations to be set up whereas Whereoscope allows unlimited locations to be tracked.


Whereoscope will only work on an iPhone with iOS4 though, as that operating system allows applications to run in the background, and both the parent and the child need to have the iPhone with iOS4. That may change in the future.


Once you install Whereoscope on your iPhone you can designate which locations your child visits regularly (Geofences) and then you will be alerted as to when your child arrives or leaves those locations.


No longer do you have to rely on your child to let you know where they are as they don’t actually have to do anything in order for the app to work. Even if your child accidentally or intentionally disables the application on their phone, you will automatically receive a warning that they have done so.


You might worry that your family’s location data is visible to others but worry not, on the company website it says:


“Whereoscope protects your family’s extremely personal location data and will only ever make it available to your family


“Your data is kept in a secure data-centre, safe from intruders. We take data security very seriously.”


Ok so this isn’t the first location based tracking software on the market but the difference with this one is that apparently it won’t gobble up your battery juice when you use.


It’s also free to use at the moment but it won’t be for long as eventually the company intend to charge a subscription fee.

Motorola to launch Android 2GHz SmartPhone in 2010


Yes you did read that correctly. According to various reports surfacing round the web, Motorola really are planning to launch a new SmartPhone with a 2GHz processor by the end of the year.


Now this sounds pretty strange doesn’t it, because from what I can gather, and correct me if I’m wrong, but the fastest SmartPhone today only has a 1.5GHz Snapdragon Processor?


So, if Motorola’s superfast phone does come to pass then it may well put all other SmartPhones in the shade so to speak, including Apple’s iPhone 4G.


Ok so if you’re wondering where the information is coming from, well, apparently it came straight from the horse’s mouth, albeit via the tech blog ConceivablyTech.


According to Wolfgang Gruener writing on ConceivablyTech, Sanjay Jha, CEO of Motorola’s consumer business and mobile devices division, confirmed at the Executives Club of Chicago that the company will continue to roll out Android phones at a fast pace, including a “2 GHz smartphone by the end of the year”.


That’s quite a major bit of news don’t you think and yet it isn’t yet being reported by the mainstream press, yet, the 2GHz phone that is.


Most are reporting on more or less how Jha said that SmartPhones will eventually bring about the demise of computers and some other pretty bland stuff but nothing about Motorola’s intended super phone.


Gruener on the other hand says that Jha didn’t say anything else about the 2GHz phone but then quotes an anonymous source from Motorola who said that “this new phone is intended to incorporate everything that is technologically possible in a SmartPhone today”.


Now that’s quite a bold statement. I mean “everything that is technologically possible”, makes you wonder what we’re going to get.


Anyway, he goes on to describe how the phone will be based on Android, and will include, like the newly released Apple iPhone 4G, a gyroscope, and it will also add an Nvidia Tegra based graphics processor with full Flash 10.1 hardware acceleration.


The unnamed Motorola source is also reported to have said that the phone would support 720p output, HD screen resolution and a camera that has more than 5 megapixels.


SmartPhones are suddenly getting exciting again.

Cheapest QWERTY Mobile Phone In India @ Rs. 850


Are you fond of latest smart QWERTY keyboard mobile? But do not want to expend the high amount for this? Don’t be worry. Now you can get QWERTY keyboard mobile with latest technology in just Rs. 850/- only.


Beston Mobile has launched many new mobiles in Mumbai. The most attractive mobile is Beston QW2 mobile. This mobile has QWERTY key button and wide screen. QW2 is facilitated with 1.3 mega pixel digital camera, FM radio, bluetooth, MP 3 player with headphone.


This mobile is available in 6 colors – Black, Red, Blue, Green, White and Yellow.


The most attractive of this mobile is its price. Where other QWERTY mobiles with these facility and specification come in minimum Rs. 1500-1600 there this QWERTY keypad mobile will available in Indian market in just Rs. 850/-.


The mobile of Beston company will be available from October 2010 in all over in India.

Trends in Nokia Mobile Phones


Nokia is a blockbuster. It has a huge range of mobile phones like nokia n95 8gb, nokia prism, nokia 6500 and etc. The company has always come up with an advanced mobile and that proved effective in competition with mobiles of other companies. Moreover, the contract deals with Nokia devices make them the best choice of people. Moreover, the Nokia phones have very attractive looks. It is their looks supported by latest technology that tempt people to buy the latest Nokia phones. The contracts available with the latest Nokia phones are good. So, people of the UK and al

Nokia

l around the world buy these phones. Among the latest releases of Nokia is the Nokia N95 8GB. This phone is slim and is an advanced version of the Nokia N95. The phone looks great, as it has a long touch screen with some control buttons. This phone slides up to reveal the keypad. This latest phone is available in all mobile shops.


Then there are other launches of Nokia mobile phones like the Nokia N98 and Nokia 6500 slide. The N98 is supported with a Carl Zeiss lens and the camera resolution is of 7.2 MP. The camera can be used for an optical zoom as well as a digital zoom. Moreover, the device is loaded with latest features like a graphic accelerator and has networks like Bluetooth, WIFI and HSDPA. The 6500 is also a latest release and is a slide phone. Supported with a Carl Zeiss lens, the camera is of 3.15 MP and can be used for auto-focus, video-recording and other purposes. The weight of the device is 125 g and so it feels good to carry the phone. The Li-Ion battery gives a stand-by of 310 h and talk-time of 6 h.


Nokia with the launch of these latest handsets has proved its credibility as a leader in mobile phones. The sets of Nokia are developed in a way that it has the best dimensions, the latest technology and good looks. Nokia develops all kinds of sets with varying designs. There are slide open phones, flip open phones and mobiles with amazing looks. So, this makes it possible for the customers to choose the best design from a variety of mobiles. The customer is left with the option to choose the phone that suits him right.

Experience the latest technology with HTC Phones


It is known by everyone that HTC is one of those innovative companies which have made the good reputation in the telecommunication market. This brand has achieved 31st rank among the world’s most innovative companies.

Centrino 2 notebook

MSI may not be the biggest name on the portable market, but it does try to deliver some of the latest technology in computer hardware by releasing new and higher performance systems. The latest product in the Taiwanese company's portfolio of 16-inch laptop comes in the form of a Centrino 2-powered system that also provides an NVIDIA discrete graphics cards for better performance. Note book, dubbed EX623, has been specifically designed to give users a MSI alternative to all these entertainment laptops on the market.

Regarding technical specifications, the new notebook is clearly one of the best-equipped laptops MSI has to offer. Based on the latest mobile platform from Intel, Centrino 2, and on one of NVIDIA's GeForce traditional mobile solutions, 9500M GS graphics card with 512 MB VRAM, the notebook is to provide a high level of computing performance. In addition, the system may also be available with up to 4 GB of DDR2 memory, and with a high capacity 320GB SATA hard drive.

Other features include a 2MP webcam, 3-in-1 card reader, DVD Super Multi or Blu-ray optical drive, a full-size keyboard, Gigabit Ethernet, 802.11n wireless with a Bluetooth module, and three USB 2.0 ports; modem connector, D-Sub and e-SATA support. Equipped with a 6-cell battery options, the notebook is said to weigh about 2.7kg. Speaking of which, users also have the choice of a higher capacity, 9-cell battery. Unfortunately, the company has not revealed any details about the system's pricing and availability.

In related news, MSI's gaming-oriented GX620 notebook has just received an "Editor's Choice Award" from the Russian Igromania Magazine. The price will recognize the design and features of MSI's GX620 gaming notebook, which is said to be ideal for both gaming enthusiasts and everyday users who are looking for a true desktop replacement.

DXG creates world’s first 3D camcorder

A 3D camcorder had to arrive some day but no one knew it would come from the pocket camcorder maker DXG. Due to arrive later this year in June, the 3D camcorder won’t be shooting HD but only VGA standard def 3D video, this is reflected by its pricetag.
You also get a 7-inch digital video viewer. The 3D in both the camcorder’s 3-inch 3D LCD viewfinder LCD and the frame look almost holographic. For what it is, footage actually looked pretty cool. The video is in Motion JPEG, a pretty standard file format, but you likely won’t be able to view the 3D footage on anything other than the DXG panel.

Sony SemiPro DCR VX2100E Handycam :


New Sony SemiPro DCR-VX2100E handycam from Sony computers is loaded with high quality professional video recording and latest technology. The handycam is built with the latest technology Hole Accumulation Diode (HAD) CCD progressive scan features which delivers an exceptional low light performance quality to the video. The users can enhance the video and image quality by making it brighter and giving various effects to it. By mounting CCD’s sensitivity to light, the user can have crisp clear videos with life like color reproduction.


Sony SemiPro DCR-VX2100E comes with an excellent 12x optical zoom and 48x / 24x digital zoom for capturing the video of distant places. The recording aspect ratio is 16:9. Sony SemiPro DCR-VX2100E has a bright LCD display screen of 2.5 Inches (6.4 cms) this makes it user interactive for the users to capture the video.The other highlighting features of Sony SemiPro DCR-VX2100E are Automotive Gain control, Exposure Control which allows manual iris adjustment, in built microphone (Stereo Electric Condenser) with sensor to automatically determine the wind position, NTSC playback, Memory Stick Slot for expanding the memory, interval recoding for capturing moving images and Guide Frame which provides users step by step guidance on each feature of the Handycam.

Samsung Omnia Louvre B7610 Mobile :


Samsung Omnia B7610 is the latest technology of amazing mobile handset it offer a sliding QWERTY keyboard also it presents a Pro UI and a Media UI and keen key to switch between them.

This is the latest technology of excellent mobile it is best for personal and profession use it has including great features such as a 5 Megapixel camera, microSDHC cards, it is powered by 800MHz processor. Also it is available in 3.5-inch AMOLED touchscreen, it offers GB internal memory.


The new Samsung Omnia Louvre B7610 mobile is works with HSDPA/HSUPA 3.5G networks also it is operate in Windows Mobile 6.1 this is such a great offer of Samsung. The new Samsung Louvre B7610 mobile is too much stylish and best for daily use you can easily use it for your professional work.i have a big craze of latest handset. This is new generation of amazing handset you can eaisly use it anywhere it is comfortable.

This is the excellent functions of new generation latest handset every business men can easily use this handset they can easily save their daily data. Samsung is the finest company of mobile it offers great quality of latest mobiles in market this is also such an excellent quality of great design handset it is launch in August 2009 in this year!

Samsung 82″ Ultra definition LCD TV :


Samsung LCD TV has a staggering 82-inch size LCD screen, 120Hz, it’s QuadHD and is able to deliver a resolution of 3840 x 2160. One of them will be an 82-inch ‘e-board’ with multi-touch screen designed to replace whiteboards and projectors. And the other one will be a DID (Digital Information Display) which will be perfect for providing 3D imagery.

“This 82-inch LCD is large enough to cover all viewing angles with ultra-definition resolution and a 120Hz refresh rate that will allow viewers to watch motion pictures as if they are really in them,” said Sang Soo Kim, executive vice president of the LCD Technology Center at Samsung Electronics. “It is the optimal display for future TVs.

A 40-inch full-HD LCD TV panel will also be showcased that operates with only two source driver ICs, instead of the normal combination of six source drivers and three gate drivers. This breakthrough lowers production costs and will make LCD TVs affordable to many more consumers.

Additionally, Samsung will exhibit a multi-view digital information display (DID) that delivers 3D images without requiring special glasses. The company is confident that this display can establish a new niche market apart from other DIDs previously introduced.

Finally, Samsung will introduce a 15-inch LCD with “blue phase mode,” and 2.3-inch e-paper that uses electrodes made from carbon nanotubes for enhanced “fold-ability.” Visitors will be able to view these and other products, such as a multi-tasking monitor with 16:9 aspect ratio and environment-friendly panels for TVs at the Samsung SID booth.

Automatic Digital Watch


Switzerland’s digital renegade luxury brand, Ventura, has announced plans for the world’s first automatic digital watch – The V-Tech Sigma ∑ MGS which will generate its own independent, constantly renewable power-source.

The watch is part of a long term strategy by Ventura to create futuristic and top-end designer watches with the latest technology.

The MGS version will look exactly like the Sigma watch except the Lithium battery would be replaced by a micro-generator powered by the movements of the user’s wrist and the case would use an even more hardened material called Titanox. The generator will be located on the top of the case and will be visible through a sapphire crystal glass for posterity purposes.

Latest Miele S7 vacuum cleaner :


Check out these pretty amazing high tech luxurious hoovers. Not only do the Miele S7 vacuum cleaners look like it came from outer space thanks to the front LEDs, sensors, and LCD screen, but also because of its smart design, which allows it to twist in every direction to the point of laying flat and transform with all kinds of built-in contraptions.

The Miele S7 has LED lights to illuminate every place it reaches while you suck pizza crumbles, Lego pieces, and dead spiders thanks to a 1,800-watt engine, built-in sensors that adjust speed and height depending on the surface and a six-litre vacuum bag. The S7 has a twisting head design that allows it to turn into every direction possible, including laying down on the floor, completely flat.

Unlike other vacuum cleaners, this one comes with all the different accessories to clean special surfaces built in its own body. Therefore, there’s no need to go to the closet to get them.

Nikon D2Xs


20 improvements in Nikon D2Xs. Tthe viewfinder has been improved. It may still offer the same 100% viewing of the scene and the 0.86% magnification, but the screen is brighter, says Nikon, thanks to the new Brite-View Clear Matte Mark III viewing screen. And the screen is available as both a clear option or gridded, for compositional aid. Better still, Nikon has improved the viewfinder’s functionality in the high-speed crop mode. Both this camera and the previous model use just 6.7 megapixels in high-speed mode to pass the 8fps images through the buffer. This smaller image size meant that, for accurate composition, a separate viewfinder screen had to be used, with lines showing the image edges. Now, the D2Xs shades the extraneous area in the viewfinder, making it much easier to switch between image sizes and continuous shooting speeds. Furthermore, the Colour Matrix Metering has been improved to allow for the smaller image format, instead of metering from the full area. Another obvious addition is the 2.5inch LCD. This isn’t larger than the previous version, but offers a wider viewing angle both horizontally and vertically of 170° – the same as the D200 and new D80.

Nikon D2X an improvement in the camera AF speed in the new model, with improved tracking in continuous AF mode and better subject finding, thanks to the Multi-CAM2000 AF module. Another major improvement is the inclusion of Adobe RGB in all three-colour modes; previously this was limited and sRGB was the predominant colour space. Nikon has also added more custom curves and custom-function options as well as an in-camera crop feature to the D2Xs. Similarly there is now a black-and-white option, which is available as a NEF and JPEG file, so you can also return the colour using the NEF file if the image isn’t working for you. Nikon also claims to have lengthened the battery life, and the D2Xs can now shoot up to 3,800 images on a single charge. An improved battery gauge shows the number of shots taken since the last charge, the percentage of power left and overall battery status. Finally, there have been improvements to the image data, with better EXIF data, additional GPS information (if used with a GPS system), and the system is now Image Authentication-compatible. Incidentally, the D2Xs uses a new NEF format, so RAW files need to be converted via the new Nikon NX software .

BMW K 1300


New K 1300 S fastest and most powerful BMW

Features :-

    *- Uprated more powerful engine
    *- New ESA II Electronic Suspension Adjustment
    *- Updated aggressive and dynamic styling
    *- New High Performance (HP) options (K 1300 S/R only) including 2D Systems’ MotoGP-style dash and Gearshift Assistant (quickshifter)
    *- New, innovative generation of switches with optimised ergonomics

BMW Motorrad has once again reaffirmed its position as a leading producer of high performance motorcycles. The launch of three significantly updated K-series models from BMW Motorrad continues its philosophy of producing innovative and dynamic motorcycles that offer state-of-the-art technology with class-leading performance.

The three updated models share the same chassis and upgraded drivetrain but appeal to three distinct motorcycle market sectors.

K 1300 S – The fastest motorcycle BMW Motorrad has ever produced. The K 1300 S is a top-of-the-range hypersports bike combining blistering power with innovative technology to offer perfect everyday or long-distance riding qualities.

RIDES MAGAZINE GENESIS SEDAN :


RIDES magazine and Hyundai developed a technology center on wheels containing the latest technology both inside and out. As an added incentive to visit the Hyundai display, 5,000 RIDES Digital Genesis iTunes cards will be distributed from the car’s Wi-Fi network during the show.

The RIDES Genesis features the latest in digital accessories including two Mac Mini computers, a MacBook Air, iPod Touch, iPhone 3G, high-speed Wi-Fi Internet connection and movie theater-quality surround sound. The trunk houses its own Mac mini computer, a 20-inch Apple Cinema Display and a motorized tray containing the mouse and keyboard for the rear computer. Within the center console are the iPhone 3G, MacBook Air laptop and wireless keyboard and mouse for the Mac Mini mounted on the rear deck. Each passenger in the back seat has an individual computer with Internet connectivity. The 8.4-inch VGA headrest monitors are wrapped in the original leather to maintain the OE look and feel, while the seats contain suede accents.

Clean, purposeful exterior modifications compliment the high-tech interior. Changes include 22-inch custom-made, staggered fitment MHT three-piece wheels, Pirelli tires, custom-molded front body kit and side skirts, lowered suspension and smoked headlights. Custom dual-tip stacked exhausts and a custom-molded rear bumper accentuate the metallic silver and blue paint job

Emotionless robots :


Researchers from the University of California, Davis, have developed a system that allows follower robots to use behavioral cues from human leaders and other robots in order to track and follow them. What this means is that robots may soon be able to respond to human emotions appropriately and thus act more naturally even though it’s still not yet possible to implement robots emotions.

These robots would now take in behavioral cues and act accordingly, thanks to mirrors and certain other tracking methods. It seems to have paid off, as the main idea was to reduce the number of instructions a robot might need. Also, compatibility with human behavior would make the robots more acceptable to humans. The ability to follow will likely be essential as robots continue to work alongside people more often than not, such as in office buildings, hospitals and airports.

Skinny HP unveiled with CAD in mind :


HP has unveiled its latest slice of technology designed with the CAD market in mind, the trim ThinClient workstation, based on the AMD Turion Dual Core 2.3-Ghz processor.

The gt7725 is shown as viewing multi-display, two- and three-dimensional MCAD designs, engineering simulation results for computational fluid dynamics and rendering images. Advanced system performance is also promised through configured dual channel memory with optimized data throughput.

Roberto Moctezuma, vice president and general manager, desktop solutions organization, HP, said: “This latest technology from HP removes one of the last remaining barriers to transitioning to a virtual client infrastructure for customers who require the highest levels of processing power or high-quality multimedia capabilities.”

This could be a useful addition for designers wanting to work from home, pushed for space and needing a light workstation; they can also take advantage of the pre-installed HP remote graphics software. Allowing the user to work closely with remotely in a secure, collaborative environment, the system should eliminate the need to upgrade to an expensive 3D graphics card on each user’s machine.

Mercedes-Benz creates bizarre concept car that looks like a 19th century carriage

Mercedes-Benz creates bizarre concept car that looks like a 19th century carriage

It bears more than a passing resemblance to an old-fashioned carriage, but Mercedes-Benz claims this roadster could be the car of the future.

Built by 150 trainees, the car combines traditional design features with the latest technology.
Mercedes-Benz

It can reach a top speed of 15.5miles an hour and has a range of 220miles.

It has large spoked wheels that hark back to the first Benz Motor Car of 1886, it is powered by a hybrid drive system using an emission-free fuel cell.

The students from Daimler AG have worked on the overall concept, development, assembly, and completion of the F-CELL Roadster for a year. The project was created to train the junior employees in alternative drive systems.

The car has a top speed of 15.5miles an hour

Car is operated by a joystick and powered by an electric motor

They included carbon-fiber bucket seats with hand-stitched leather covers and a distinctively styled fiberglass front section, inspired by Formula One racing cars.

The roadster is controlled with drive-by-wire technology, and a joystick takes the place of a conventional steering wheel.

HISTORY OF CPU

EARLY COMPUTERS

In the first computers, CPUs were made of vacuum tubes and electric relays rather than microscopic transistors on computer chips. These early computers were immense and needed a great deal of power compared to today’s microprocessor-driven computers. The first general purpose electronic computer, the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer), was introduced in 1946 and filled a large room. About 18,000 vacuum tubes were used to build ENIAC’s CPU and input/output circuits. Between 1946 and 1956 all computers had bulky CPUs that consumed massive amounts of energy and needed continual maintenance, because the vacuum tubes burned out frequently and had to be replaced.


TRANSISTOR

A solution to the problems posed by vacuum tubes came in 1948, when American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley first demonstrated a revolutionary new electronic switching and amplifying device called the transistor. The transistor had the potential to work faster and more reliably and to consume much less power than a vacuum tube. Despite the overwhelming advantages transistors offered over vacuum tubes, it took nine years before they were used in a commercial computer. The first commercially available computer to use transistors in its circuitry was the UNIVAC (UNIVersal Automatic Computer), delivered to the United States Air Force in 1956.


THE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC)

Development of the computer chip started in 1958 when Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments demonstrated that it was possible to integrate the various components of a CPU onto a single piece of silicon. These computer chips were called integrated circuits (ICs) because they combined multiple electronic circuits on the same chip. Subsequent design and manufacturing advances allowed transistor densities on integrated circuits to increase tremendously. The first ICs had only tens of transistors per chip compared to the millions or even billions of transistors per chip available on today’s CPUs.

In 1967 Fairchild Semiconductor introduced a single integrated circuit that contained all the arithmetic logic functions for an eight-bit processor. (A bit is the smallest unit of information used in computers. Multiples of a bit are used to describe the largest-size piece of data that a CPU can manipulate at one time.) However, a fully working integrated circuit computer required additional circuits to provide register storage, data flow control, and memory and input/output paths. Intel Corporation accomplished this in 1971 when it introduced the Intel 4004 microprocessor. Although the 4004 could only manage four-bit arithmetic, it was powerful enough to become the core of many useful hand calculators at the time. In 1975 Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems introduced the Altair 8800, the first personal computer kit to feature an eight-bit microprocessor. Because microprocessors were so inexpensive and reliable, computing technology rapidly advanced to the point where individuals could afford to buy a small computer. The concept of the personal computer was made possible by the advent of the microprocessor CPU. In 1978 Intel introduced the first of its x86 CPUs, the 8086 16-bit microprocessor. Although 32-bit microprocessors are most common today, microprocessors are becoming increasingly sophisticated, with many 64-bit CPUs available. High-performance processors can run with internal clock rates that exceed 3 GHz, or 3 billion clock pulses per second.


CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS

The competitive nature of the computer industry and the use of faster, more cost-effective computing continue the drive toward faster CPUs. The minimum transistor size that can be manufactured using current technology is fast approaching the theoretical limit. In the standard technique for microprocessor design, ultraviolet (short wavelength) light is used to expose a light-sensitive covering on the silicon chip. Various methods are then used to etch the base material along the pattern created by the light. These etchings form the paths that electricity follows in the chip. The theoretical limit for transistor size using this type of manufacturing process is approximately equal to the wavelength of the light used to expose the light-sensitive covering. By using light of shorter wavelength, greater detail can be achieved and smaller transistors can be manufactured, resulting in faster, more powerful CPUs. Printing integrated circuits with X-rays, which have a much shorter wavelength than ultraviolet light, may provide further reductions in transistor size that will translate to improvements in CPU speed.

Many other avenues of research are being pursued in an attempt to make faster CPUs. New base materials for integrated circuits, such as composite layers of gallium arsenide and gallium aluminum arsenide, may contribute to faster chips. Alternatives to the standard transistor-based model of the CPU are also being considered. Experimental ideas in computing may radically change the design of computers and the concept of the CPU in the future. These ideas include quantum computing, in which single atoms hold bits of information; molecular computing, where certain types of problems may be solved using recombinant DNA techniques; and neural networks, which are computer systems with the ability to learn.

HOW A CPU WORKS

CPU FUNCTION

A CPU is similar to a calculator, only much more powerful. The main function of the CPU is to perform arithmetic and logical operations on data taken from memory or on information entered through some device, such as a keyboard, scanner, or joystick. The CPU is controlled by a list of software instructions, called a computer program. Software instructions entering the CPU originate in some form of memory storage device such as a hard disk, floppy disk, CD-ROM, or magnetic tape. These instructions then pass into the computer’s main random access memory (RAM), where each instruction is given a unique address, or memory location. The CPU can access specific pieces of data in RAM by specifying the address of the data that it wants.

As a program is executed, data flow from RAM through an interface unit of wires called the bus, which connects the CPU to RAM. The data are then decoded by a processing unit called the instruction decoder that interprets and implements software instructions. From the instruction decoder the data pass to the arithmetic/logic unit (ALU), which performs calculations and comparisons. Data may be stored by the ALU in temporary memory locations called registers where it may be retrieved quickly. The ALU performs specific operations such as addition, multiplication, and conditional tests on the data in its registers, sending the resulting data back to RAM or storing it in another register for further use. During this process, a unit called the program counter keeps track of each successive instruction to make sure that the program instructions are followed by the CPU in the correct order.


BRANCHING INSTRUCTIONS

The program counter in the CPU usually advances sequentially through the instructions. However, special instructions called branch or jump instructions allow the CPU to abruptly shift to an instruction location out of sequence. These branches are either unconditional or conditional. An unconditional branch always jumps to a new, out of order instruction stream. A conditional branch tests the result of a previous operation to see if the branch should be taken. For example, a branch might be taken only if the result of a previous subtraction produced a negative result. Data that are tested for conditional branching are stored in special locations in the CPU called flags.

CLOCK PULSES


The CPU is driven by one or more repetitive clock circuits that send a constant stream of pulses throughout the CPU’s circuitry. The CPU uses these clock pulses to synchronize its operations. The smallest increments of CPU work are completed between sequential clock pulses. More complex tasks take several clock periods to complete. Clock pulses are measured in Hertz, or number of pulses per second. For instance, a 2-gigahertz (2-GHz) processor has 2 billion clock pulses passing through it per second. Clock pulses are a measure of the speed of a processor.



FIXED-POINT AND FLOATING-POINT NUMBERS


Most CPUs handle two different kinds of numbers: fixed-point and floating-point numbers. Fixed-point numbers have a specific number of digits on either side of the decimal point. This restriction limits the range of values that are possible for these numbers, but it also allows for the fastest arithmetic. Floating-point numbers are numbers that are expressed in scientific notation, in which a number is represented as a decimal number multiplied by a power of ten. Scientific notation is a compact way of expressing very large or very small numbers and allows a wide range of digits before and after the decimal point. This is important for representing graphics and for scientific work, but floating-point arithmetic is more complex and can take longer to complete. Performing an operation on a floating-point number may require many CPU clock periods. A CPU’s floating-point computation rate is therefore less than its clock rate. Some computers use a special floating-point processor, called a coprocessor, that works in parallel to the CPU to speed up calculations using floating-point numbers. This coprocessor has become standard on many personal computer CPUs, such as Intel's Pentium chip.

CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU)

INTRODUCTION

Central Processing Unit (CPU), in computer science, microscopic circuitry that serves as the main information processor in a computer. A CPU is generally a single microprocessor made from a wafer of semiconducting material, usually silicon, with millions of electrical components on its surface. On a higher level, the CPU is actually a number of interconnected processing units that are each responsible for one aspect of the CPU’s function. Standard CPUs contain processing units that interpret and implement software instructions, perform calculations and comparisons, make logical decisions (determining if a statement is true or false based on the rules of Boolean algebra), temporarily store information for use by another of the CPU’s processing units, keep track of the current step in the execution of the program, and allow the CPU to communicate with the rest of the computer.

How A CPU Works
History Of CPU

BUS NETWORK

Bus Network, in computer science, a topology (configuration) for a local area network in which all nodes are connected to a main communications line (bus). On a bus network, each node monitors activity on the line. Messages are detected by all nodes but are accepted only by the node(s) to which they are addressed. Because a bus network relies on a common data “highway,” a malfunctioning node simply ceases to communicate; it doesn't disrupt operation as it might on a ring network, in which messages are passed from one node to the next. To avoid collisions that occur when two or more nodes try to use the line at the same time, bus networks commonly rely on collision detection or Token Passing to regulate traffic.

Gmail Enhances Usability and Simplifies User Experience - Another Great Product Gets Google's Trademark

It was just another regular day of checking my mails on Gmail.
But aahh!!! So is it?
Great, so this time its Gmail. Its now Gmail which is showing the results of all the User Experience studies Google use to do on its products and also on others products. I was really surprised to see that pop-up within my Gmail window which also made me amazed of my web based email system being changed after a bit long time. At the first look it looked to me as the minimalist attitude Google has taken to this which is a kind of regular for Google. But second thought was obviously - Powerful, specially for Contacts.


When you are in your mails, the compose mail link has now been changed into a button, whereas when you are with your address book, the New Contact creation is a button - means buttons are for similar actions where as links are for other tasks; quite justified.

Mail Selection - yea a great step there. Select All, Unread, Read, None and Starred is now more powerful. I always had a kind of doubt on the links that Gmail used to have for these tasks, for whether users feel comfortable with those. But now its a good touch. Loved the change.

Sorting of contacts by last name is also seemed to be a good approach as the standard of Last name, First name is being popular among the population. Enhancing keyboard shortcuts, and Merge contacts adding up to this.

Now you can assign custom labels to phone numbers which gives you the freedom of personalization. Though I am still not much confident about the automatic saving feature, greatly appreciate the Undo feature for recent changes, which can be Google's justification to auto-saving. But still I find the "Save" button disabled and saying "Saved" whenever I make some change and go to click that button - a bit odd to human behavior though it saves a mouse click.

COMPUTER


Computer is an electronic device that receives input, stores and manipulates data, and provides output in a useful format at high speed. Computer performs tasks, such as calculations or electronic communication, under the control of a set of instructions called a program. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably, accurately, and quickly. The most versatile machine that man has ever created is computer. In the sectors of education, industries, government, medicine, scientific research, law and even in music and art computer has played a vital role. So without computers, life would certainly be difficult and different.

CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER
Today, computers are found everywhere in offices, homes, schools and many other
places. Much of the world runs on computers, and computers have changed our lives. Some of the characteristics of computers, which make them the most essential part of every emerging technology, are listed below:

Speed
Computers work at tremendous speed which process data at an extremely fast rate. At present a powerful computer can perform billions of operations in just a second.
Milli second = A thousandth of a second (1/1,000)
Micro second = A millionth of a second (1/1,000,000)
Nano second = A billionth of a second (1/1,000,000,000)
Pico second = A trillionth of a second (1/1,000,000,000,000)

Accuracy
The computers are very accurate. The level of accuracy depends upon the instructions and the type of machine being used. Computer is capable of doing only what it is instructe
d to do. Inaccurate instructions for processing lead to inaccurate results. This is known as GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out). Errors may occur in the results due to human factors rather than the technological weaknesses.

Automatic
Computers are automatic machines. Once a program is in the memory of a computer, no human intervention is needed; it allows the instructions step by step, executes them and terminates the execution when it receives the command to do so.

Storage capacity
Computers have got a main memory and the secondary storage systems. The main mem
ory of the computer is relatively small and it can hold only a certain amount of information. Therefore, the larger amount of data and information is stored in the secondary storage media such as magnetic disk and optical disk. Computers can also retrieve the information instantly when desired.

Diligence
Computer, being a machine, does not suffer from the human problems of tiredness and lack of concentration. It can continuously work for hours without making mistakes. Even if millions of calculations are to be performed, it will perform the last calculation with the same accuracy and speed as it has done in the first one.

LIMITATIONS OF COMPUTER
Computers have certain limitations too. As a machine, a computer can only perform what it is programmed to do. Computers lack decision-making power, computers cannot decide on their own. If an unanticipated situation arises, computers will either produce erroneous results or abandon the task altogether. They do not have the potential to work out an alternative solution


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BEST INPUT DEVICE AVAILABLE IN MARKET

INPUT DEVICE
An input device can be defined as an electromechanical device that allows the user to feed data and instructions into the computer for analysis, storage, and to give the commands to the computer. Data and instructions are entered into the computer’s main memory through an input device. Input device captures data and translates it into a form that can be broadly classified into the following categories:

Key board
A keyboard is the most common input device. Using a keyboard, the user can type the text and execute commands. Keyboard is designed to resemble a regular typewriter with a few additional keys. Data is entered into the computer by simply pressing various keys.
The layout of a keyboard comes in various styles but QWERTY is the most common layout. The layout of the keyboard has changed very little ever since it was introduced. In fact, the most common change in its technology has simply been the natural evolution of adding more keys that provide additional functionality. The number of keys on a keyboard varies from 82 keys to 108 keys. Portable computers such as laptops quite often have custom keyboards that have slightly different key arrangements from a standard keyboard.

Pointing Devices
Pointing devices are the input devices by which we can point out and select the items rapidly from the multiple options displayed on the screen. These devices can also be used to create graphic elements on the screen such as lines, curves and freehand shapes. The most common types of pointing devices available are;
a) Mouse b) Trackball c) Joystick
d) Touch Screen e) Light Pen d) Touch Pad

a) Mouse
A mouse is a small hand-held pointing device, which is used to create graphic elements on the screen such as lines, curves, and freehand shapes. It is also used to run a program and pull down a menu in GUI (Graphic User Interface) base computer system. It is rectangular shaped with a rubber ball embedded at its lower side and buttons on the top. Usually a mouse contains two or three buttons, whish can be used to input commands or instructions. The mouse may be classified into two categories:
I) Mechanical mouse II) Optical mouse

I) Mechanical mouse
A mechanical mouse uses a rubber ball at the bottom surface, which rotates as the mouse along a flat surface to move the cursor. It is the most common and expensive pointing device. Microsoft, IBM and Logitech are some well-known makers of the mechanical mouse.

II) Optical mouse
An optical mouse uses the light beam instead of rotating ball to detect the movement across a specially patterned mouse pad. As the mouse rolls the mouse on a flat surface, the cursor on the screen also moves in the direction of the mouse’s movement. It is more expensive in comparison with the mechanical mouse. Modern optical mouse are accurate and often do not need a mouse pad.

b) Track Ball
A track ball is another pointing device that uses a ball which is settled in a square cardle. In general, a track ball is just like a turned upside down a mouse. The ball is rolled by fingers to move the cursor around the screen. A track ball requires less space than a mouse for operation because the whole device is not moved for moving the curser. It is often attached to or inbuilt into the keyboard. The trackball built into the keyboard are commonly used in laptop computers, because the mouse is not practical for laptop users in a small space. This pointing device comes in various shapes but with the same functionality. It works like a mouse.

c) Joystick
Joystick is a device that moves in all directions and controls the movement of the cursor on the screen. The joystick offers three types of controls.
• Digital control
• Glide control
• Direct control
Digital control allows in a limited movement in a number of directions such as up,
down, left and right. Glid and direct controls allow movements in all directions (360 degree). The basic design of a joystick consists of a stick that is attached to plastic base with a flexible rubber sheath. It has some pushing buttons and a circuit board which is placed under the stick. Joysticks are mainly used for computer games, controlling industrial robots and for other applications such as flight simulators, training simulators, etc.

d) Light Pen
A light pen is a hand-held electro-optical pointing device which is connected to the computer by a cable. When it touches to a connected computer monitor, it will allow the computer to determine where on that screen the pen is pointed. It facilitates drawing images and selects objects on the display screen by directly pointing to the objects with the pen. Light pens give the user the full range of mouse capabilities, without using the pad and any horizontal surface. Using light pens, the user can interact more easily with applications in such modes as dragging and dropping or highlighting. It is very popular for graphic work in engineering like CAD (Computer Aided Design)

e) Touch Screen
A touch screen is a special kind of screen device, which is placed on the computer monitor in order to allow the direct selection or activation of the computer’s information, when somebody touches the screen. Essentially, it registers the input when a finger or other object to touch the screen. Touch screen is normally used to touch the screen. Touch screen is normally used to access the information with minimum effort. However, it is not suitable for input of large amount of data. Typically, they are used in information-providing systems like the hospital, airlines, railway reservation counters, amusement parks, etc.

f) Touch Pad
A touch pad is one of the latest pointing devices. It looks like a small gray window, about two inches wide. It is use din potable computer such as laptop and notebook to substitute the mouse. It has two buttons below or above the pads which work like the mouse buttons. You can move the cursor on the screen by making a finger or other object along the pad .And one can also click by tapping a finger on the touch pad, and drag with a tap in the continuous pointing scale.

Digital Camera
A digital camera is also an input device which stores pictures digitally rather than recording them on a film. Once a picture has been taken that stores on its chip memory. The picture can be downloaded to computer system and then manipulated with an image editing software. Then it can be printed. The major advantage of digital cameras is that making photos is both inexpensive and fast because there is no film processing.

Scanner
A scanner scans an image and transforms the image to ASCII codes and graphics. This can be edited, manipulated, combined and then printed. Scanners use a light beam to scan the input data. If the data to be scanned is an image, it can be changed by using the special image editing software. If the image is a page of a text, then the special optical character recognition software must be used to convert the image of letters in the text and this can be edited by using a word processor. Most of the scanners come with a utility program that allows it to communicate with the computer and save the scanned image as a graphic file on the computer. Commonly scanners are classified in two types:
• Hand-Held scanner
• Flat-Bed scanner

Microphone
A microphone is a speech recognition device. Speech recognition is one of the most interactive system to communicate with the computer. The user can simply instruct the computer about the task to be performed with the help of a microphone. It is the technology by which sounds, words or phrases spoken by humans are converted into digital signals, and these signals are transformed into the computer generated texts or commands. Most speech recognition systems are speaker-dependent so they must be separately trained for each individual user. The speech recognition systems system learns to voice of the user, who speaks isolated words repeatedly. Then, these voiced words are recognizable in the future. It is more popular in the corporate world among non-typists, people with disabilities, and business travelers who tap-record information for later transcription.

Graphic Digitizer
Graphic digitizer is an input device, which is used for converting pictures, maps and drawings into digital form for storage in computers. This enables re-creation of the drawing whenever required. It also facilitates any changes in the drawing whenever required.
A digitizer consists of a digital tablet (also known as graphics tablet) associated with a stylus. The digitizing tablet is a flat surface, which contains hundreds of fine copper wires forming a grid. Each copper wire receives electric pulses. The digitizing tablet can be spread over a working table, and is connected to computer.

Optical Scanners
New technologies have developed alternative methods to input data instead of entering data through keystrokes. Devices such as bar code reader can interpret machine printed marks or codes. Accordingly there are four types of optical recognition.
a) OCR (Optical Character Recognition)
b) OMR (Optical Mark Recognition)
c) MICR ( Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition)
d) BCR(Bar Code Reader)

Optical Character Recognition (OCR)
Optical Character Recognition is a process of scanning printed pages as image on a flatbed scanner using OCR software which recognizes the letters as ASCII text. The device used for this technology is called optical reader. In the OCR system book or a magazine article is fed directly into an electronic computer file, and then this file is edited by using a word processor. Advanced OCR systems can read the text large variety of fonts.

Optical Mark Recognition (OMR)
Optical Mark Recognition is the process of recognizing a pre-specified type of marks made by pencils or pen on the paper. This type of technology is used to evaluate the papers of competitive examination. Optical mark reading is done by special device called optical mark reader.

Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition (MICR)
Magnetic-Ink Character Recognition technology is used by the banking industry for faster processing of the large volume of cheques. This technology also ensures accuracy of data entry, because most of the information is pre-printed on the cheque and is directly fed to the computer. Magnetic ink character reader is a device used in the technology.

Bar Code Reader (BCR)
A bar code is a machine-readable code in the form of a pattern of parallel vertical lines. They are commonly used for labeling goods that are available in supermarkets, numbering books in libraries, etc. These codes/strips are sensed and read by a photoelectric device called bar code reader that reads the code by means of reflective light. The information recorded in a bar code reader is fed into the computer, which recognizes the information from the thickness and spacing of bars.